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Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling

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2013-3

Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Volume 55, 2013 (3)


Intellectual and non-intellectual determinants of high academic achievement - the contribution of personality traits to the assessment of high performance potential
Stefana Holocher-Ertl, Silvia Schubhart & Georg Wilflinger
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In memoriam Reinhold Hatzinger (1953 - 2012)
Paul de Boeck
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Special Topic:
Current perspectives on the assessment of giftedness - Part I
Guest editor: Wilma Vialle

Guest editorial
Wilma Vialle
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Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests
Steven J. Howard, Janice Johnson & Juan Pascual-Leone
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Identifying the causes of underachievement: A plea for the inclusion of fine motor skills
Heidrun Stoeger, Sebastian Suggate & Albert Ziegler
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Integrating mathematical abilities and creativity in the assessment of mathematical giftedness
Katerina Kontoyianni, Maria Kattou, Demetra Pitta-Pantazi & Constantinos Christou
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Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT): A new measure of scientific creativity
Ugur Sak & M. Bahadir Ayas
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Intellectual and non-intellectual determinants of high academic achievement - the contribution of personality traits to the assessment of high performance potential
Stefana Holocher-Ertl, Silvia Schubhart & Georg Wilflinger

Abstract

In this paper a study is presented which tries to explain and predict high academic achievement in children or adolescents on the basis of intellectual and non-intellectual determinants - in this case, performance relevant personality traits  as well as the social environment of stimulation.  The prognosis of high academic achievement is based on a new diagnostic  model, the Viennese Diagnostic Model of High Achievement Potential, which undergoes its first empirical validation here.  The results show impressive evidence that performance-relevant personality traits and categories of social environment of stimulation contribute to high academic achievement in children and adolescents of above-average intelligence.

Keywords: academic achievement, high ability, IQ, caregiving, achievement motivation, Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum (AID)


Stefana Holocher-Ertl, M.Sc.
Center for Testing and Consulting
Psychological Assessment and Applied Psychometrics
Faculty of Psychology
University of Vienna
Liebiggasse 5
A-1010 Vienna, Austria, Europe
stefana.holocher-ertl@univie.ac.at

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Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests
Steven J. Howard, Janice Johnson & Juan Pascual-Leone

Abstract

Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor underlying developmental growth in working memory. Measures of M-capacity index important cognitive variance underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests. These measures appear to be reasonably culture-fair and invariant across content domains. The current study tested theoretical predictions regarding the content-invariance of M-measures and the development of M-capacity for groups of children differing in performance on standardized IQ tests. Ninety-one participants differentiated on the basis of academic stream (intellectually gifted vs. mainstream) and age (grade 4 vs. grade 8) received measures of M-capacity in the verbal and visuo-spatial domains. Children identified as gifted scored about one stage higher on both measures. Results suggest that measures of M-capacity may be useful adjuncts to standardized intelligence measures.

Key words: mental attention, working memory, intelligence, IQ, giftedness


Steven Howard, PhD
Faculty of Education
University of Wollongong
Wollongong
New South Wales, 2522, Australia
stevenh@uow.edu.au

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Identifying the causes of underachievement: A plea for the inclusion of fine motor skills
Heidrun Stoeger, Sebastian Suggate & Albert Ziegler

Abstract

Underachievers are children who show academic performance that is lower than what would be expected for their IQ. Previous research has investigated a number of variables that might explain underachievement and recently fine motor skills (FMS) have been implicated as playing an important role. We extend this work by exploring the influence of FMS and attention on under-achievement and achievement. Fourth-grade children in Germany (n = 357, age = 10.8) were tested on measures of intelligence, attention, and FMS, and teachers were asked to report grades in mathematics. Amongst other findings, analyses indicated that underachievers had lower attention and FMS and that attention mediated the relation between FMS and maths achievement. Overall, the current findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that FMS play an important role in underachievement and are, therefore, a candidate for inclusion in the identification processes.

Keywords: fine motor skills; underachievement; giftedness; academic achievement; Attention


Prof. Dr. Heidrun Stoeger
Chair Professor of School Research
School Development, and Evaluation
Universitätsstr. 31
93053 Regensburg, Germany
heidrun.stoeger@paedagogik.uni-regensburg.de

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Integrating mathematical abilities and creativity in the assessment of mathematical giftedness
Katerina Kontoyianni, Maria Kattou, Demetra Pitta-Pantazi & Constantinos Christou

Abstract

This study aims to examine the structure of the relationship between intelligence and mathematical giftedness and build a comprehensive model to describe this relationship and the nature of mathematical giftedness. This study also purports to clarify the structure of components of mathematical ability. The third objective is to examine whether students who were identified by two different instruments - (a) mathematical ability and creativity instrument and (b) intelligence instrument - have statistically significant differences across the components of mathematical ability. That is, we want to investigate if variance in identification may be explained by variance in mathematical abilities exhibited by these individuals. To achieve these goals, this study proposes a new domain-specific identification instrument for the assessment of mathematical giftedness, assessing mathematical abilities and creativity. The study was conducted among 359 4th, 5th and 6th grade elementary school students in Cyprus, using two instruments measuring mathematical ability and mathematical creativity and fluid intelligence. The results revealed that mathematical giftedness can be described in terms of mathematical ability and mathematical creativity. Moreover, the analysis illustrated that intelligence is a predictor of mathematical giftedness. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that different groups of students are identified by each type of testing; that is, through the mathematical instrument and the intelligence instrument. This variance may be explained by performance in specific categories of tasks.

Key words: giftedness, creativity, mathematical ability, intelligence


Katerina Kontoyianni, PhD
University of Cyprus
Department of Education
P.O.Box 20537
1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
kontoyianni.katerina@ucy.ac.cy

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Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT): A new measure of scientific creativity
Ugur Sak & M. Bahadir Ayas

Abstract

The assessment of creativity has been a controversial issue in the studies of creativity. Contrary to old paradigms, contemporary researchers support the use of domain-specific tests to measure creativity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some psychometric properties of the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT), a domain-specific test of scientific creativity. The C-SAT was developed based on the Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model and pioneering works on divergent thinking. The test is composed of five subtests and measures fluency, flexibility and creativity and hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation in five areas of science. In the study, the C-SAT was administered to 288 sixth grade students in a city in the mid part of Turkey. Factor validity analysis revealed the presence of one component and concurrent validity analysis showed that mathematically talented students scored significantly higher on the C-SAT than did average students. Reliability values of the C-SAT ranged from good (.85) to excellent (.96) and all of the item discrimination correlations were medium or large. Research findings show that the C-SAT can be used as an objective measure of scientific creativity.

Key words: Creative Scientific Ability Test, scientific creativity, assessment


Prof. Ugur Sak
Gifted Education Division
Faculty of Education
Anadolu University
26470 Eskisehir, Turkey
usak@anadolu.edu.tr

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