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Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling

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2015-1

Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Volume 57, 2015 (1)

Pairwise Rasch model item parameter recovery under sparse data conditions
Jörg-Henrik Heine & Christian Tarnai
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article


Special Topic:
Identifying effective learning environments - Part I
Guest editors: Jörg Schorer, Joseph Baker, Heidrun Stoeger & Albert Ziegler

Guest Editorial
Jörg Schorer, Joseph Baker, Heidrun Stoeger & Albert Ziegler
Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Learning resources within the Actiotope: A validation study of the QELC (Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital)
Anamaria Vladut, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Virtual realities as optimal learning environments in sport - A transfer study of virtual and real dart throwing
Judith Tirp, Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker & Jörg Schorer
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

What influences motivation in Physical Education? A multilevel approach for identifying climate determinants of achievement motivation
Benjamin Niederkofler, Christian Herrmann, Sara Seiler & Erin Gerlach
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Why experts can do what they do: The effects of exogenous resources on the Domain Impact Level of Activities (DILA)
Tobias Debatin, Manuel Hopp, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Age differences in the Actiotope Model of Giftedness in a Turkish sample
Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Developmental contexts, depth of competition and relative age effects in sport: A database analysis and a quasi-experiment
Jörg Schorer, Steve Cobley, Helge Bräutigam, Florian Loffing, Stephan Hütter, Dirk Büsch, Nick Wattie, Werner Helsen  & Joseph Baker
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article


Pairwise Rasch model item parameter recovery under sparse data conditions
Jörg-Henrik Heine & Christian Tarnai

Abstract
In social science research the occurrence of missing values is a prevalent issue. In addition to that the use of multi-level response formats often results in low cell frequencies, especially under the condition of higher proportions of missing values and small datasets. This in turn may lead to problems for parameter identification in probabilistic item response models, applying the Conditional Maximum Likelihood (CML) or Marginal Maximum Likelihood (MML) method. While listwise deletion or pairwise deletion usually results in a significant reduction of the sample size and may thus impair efficiency, most methods of data imputation require preceding assumptions about the data loss mechanism, which often can not be checked. Consequently an alternative non-iterative approach to item parameter recovery is introduced. This will be outlined using a minimal example. This approach, named PAIR, is based on conditional pairwise item category comparisons. In the present study data from the NEO-PI-R inventory were analyzed using three different algorithms for item parameter recovery (PAIR, CML, MML) each under a continuing rise of missing data. The resulting item parameter estimates are compared with regard to their accuracy of the point estimates as well as the size of their respective standard errors. The results are discussed comparatively under the condition of the increasing proportion of missing values by simulation. The results suggest that even at higher levels of missing data the PAIR approach leads to stable item parameter estimates.

Keywords: Rasch model, item parameter recovery, pairwise comparisons, least squares, pairwise


Jörg-Henrik Heine
Technische Universität München
TUM School of Education
Arcisstr. 21
80333 München, Germany
joerg.heine@tum.de
 


Learning resources within the Actiotope: A validation study of the QELC (Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital)
Anamaria Vladut, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler

Abstract
In the Actiotope Model of Giftedness the important role of exogenous and endogenous learning resources (educational and learning capital) for successful learning is emphasized. However, so far no empirical evidence has been offered to establish a link between an actiotope and learning resources. An economical quantitative measuring instrument is the Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC). In an empirical study with a sample of 248 post-secondary school students from Germany, the empirical link between actiotope variables and learning resources was established. The results showed that the QELC has satisfactory psychometric qualities as well as acceptable factorial and concurrent validity.

Keywords: giftedness, educational capital, learning capital, QELC, actiotope


Anamaria Vladut, Dipl.-Psych.
Department of Educational Psychology
and Research on Excellence
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
Dutzendteichstr. 24
90478 Nuremberg, Germany
anamaria.vladut@fau.de


Virtual realities as optimal learning environments in sport - A transfer study of virtual and real dart throwing
Judith Tirp, Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker & Jörg Schorer

Abstract

Virtual realities offer a safe and repeatable learning environment, which is optimal for skills that are difficult to replicate in real-world settings. Previous research has demonstrated transfer of motor skill between basketball and darts but not of perceptual performance (Rienhoff et al., 2013). Our study considered the transferability of a specific skill between virtual and real learning environments - in our case throwing accuracy (TA) and quiet eye duration (QED) in dart throwing. Participants (n = 38) were separated into three groups (virtual training, real training, & control) and completed 15 throws in pre- and post-tests on a real and on a virtual (Microsoft XBox Kinect) dartboard. The training groups performed three sessions of 50 throws each. QED was measured using SMI eye tracking glasses and TA was defined as radial distance from the bull’s eye. Results showed significant differences in TA for group and condition; the real training group outperformed the control group and TA was better in the virtual group. The interaction of test and group was significant. Both training groups improved between tests while the control group performed worst. Results for QED showed a significant increase between tests. Furthermore, significant differences for condition and a significant interaction of condition and test were measured. QED was longer and enhanced in the virtual group. Our results generally showed the efficiency of both training modalities and the slight difference in training effects between groups suggests transferability between tasks.

Keywords: virtual environments, transfer, quiet eye


Judith Tirp
Institut für Sportwissenschaft
Fakultät 4: Human- und Gesellschaftswissenschaften
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
Postfach 2503
26111 Oldenburg, Germany
judith.tirp@uni-oldenburg.de


What influences motivation in Physical Education? A multilevel approach for identifying climate determinants of achievement motivation
Benjamin Niederkofler, Christian Herrmann, Sara Seiler, & Erin Gerlach

Abstract

The present research tested the longitudinal and hierarchical influences of students’ climate perception on the development of achievement motives in Physical Education (PE). Students from Switzerland (N = 919; 45 classes; 50.1% female, age: M = 13.2, SD = 0.6) responded to the questionnaire. Perceived climate was measured using the German LASSO scales (Von Saldern & Littig, 1987), namely teacher care, classmate cooperativeness and satisfaction with teaching. To assess sport specific achievement motives (Hope of Success, HS; Fear of Failure, FF), we used a validated German scale from Elbe, Wenhold, and Müller (2005). Multilevel analysis revealed a link between perceived climate on change of students’ motivation in PE. The investigation also identified factors determining motivation decline caused by the classroom environment and teachers. Moreover, results showed significant gender effects on both motives and a significant impact of individual teacher care on the HS. This was also found for individual and aggregated satisfaction with teaching. The latter was significant for FF on both levels. Interestingly, teacher care showed inhibitory effects on both achievement motives. These findings suggest that students in PE may have unique behaviour which requires a different teaching approach than in normal classroom. This describes a specific learning environment in PE classes. Results are discussed based on students’ unique needs and gender effects.

Keywords:  achievement motivation, longitudinal study, multilevel analysis, physical education, climate perceptions


Benjamin Niederkofler
Department of Sport Science and Kinesiologie
University of Salzburg, Austria
benjamin.niederkofler@sbg.ac.at


Why experts can do what they do: The effects of exogenous resources on the Domain Impact Level of Activities (DILA)
Tobias Debatin, Manuel Hopp, Wilma Vialle & Albert Ziegler

Abstract

In many domains, it is estimated that approximately 10,000 hours of planned learning activities are required to reach an expert level of performance. However, this poses a challenge for learners to balance such extensive learning times with the demands of everyday life. In our study we focused on activities in the domain of chess. We hypothesized that chess-related activities could be better integrated in an individual’s life if exogenous resources - specified in the educational capital approach (Ziegler & Baker, 2013) - are sufficiently available. In order to test this hypothesis we introduced the concept of the Domain Impact Level of Activities (DILA), that is, the degree to which a learner's activities are influenced by a certain domain. As expected, we found that the more exogenous resources (educational capital) chess players had at their disposal, the higher was their DILA in regard to social and everyday activities. Concerning social activities, we also found a direct effect of playing time hours and a small indirect effect of educational capital on the DILA via playing time hours. In the model predicting the DILA of everyday activities, these effects were not found. It was concluded that the availability of educational capital facilitates the integration of domain-related activities in a learner’s life.
Keywords: Educational capital, actiotope, chess, expertise


Tobias Debatin, PhD
Chair of educational psychology
and excellence research
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
Regensburger Straße 160
90478 Nuremberg, Germany
tobias.debatin@fau.de


Age differences in the Actiotope Model of Giftedness in a Turkish sample
Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar

Abstract

According to the Actiotope Model of Giftedness, person-environment interactions are the core of excellence. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the resources that support the achievement of goals and to provide more efficient resources. These resources are named educational (localized in the environment) and learning (localized in the individual) capitals. The Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) was developed based on the Actiotope Model of Giftedness and these capitals. The aim of this study is to present gender and age differences in relation to educational and learning capitals, in a Turkish sample of 1,620 students at three different grade levels: fourth graders (231 girls, 239 boys; mean age = 10.15, SD = 0.40), seventh graders (353 girls, 376 boys; mean age = 13.08, SD = 0.34), and 10th graders (274 girls, 147 boys; mean age = 16.20, SD = 0.54). Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected two-factor structure (educational and learning capitals) of the original German version of QELC. The Cronbach's alpha result for the Turkish version of the QELC was .97. The findings suggest that gender differences are more important in the seventh grade (first year of adolescence) in favor of girls in economic, cultural, social, organismic, and telic capitals. Results about age differences showed that the younger the students are, the more their achievement is positively affected by the capitals.

Keywords: giftedness, actiotope, QELC, gender and age differences


Marilena Z. Leana-Taşcılar, PhD
Department of Special Education
Gifted Teacher Training Programme
University of Istanbul
34080 Istanbul, Fatih, Turkey
mleana@istanbul.edu.tr


Developmental contexts, depth of competition and relative age effects in sport: A database analysis and a quasi-experiment
Jörg Schorer, Steve Cobley, Helge Bräutigam, Florian Loffing, Stephan Hütter, Dirk Büsch, Nick Wattie, Werner Helsen  & Joseph Baker

Abstract

Improving learning environments requires an understanding of biases and restrictions of current environments. The widely used policy of grouping youth into ‘age groups’ for education and sport promotes a persistent and pervasive developmental disadvantage known as the ‘relative age effect’. This investigation documents two studies examining the potential role of depth of competition in promoting relative age effects in sport. In Study 1, we considered effects across 49 European countries (N = 189,411) and their relationship with depth of competition. There were significant effects in 38 countries but they did not seem to be related to depth of competition as measured by UEFA club ranking, league, ratio of national to international players or inhabitants per country. Study 2 used a quasi-experimental approach to consider a linear relationship between the number of participants in a sport, the number of spots on a sports team and the size of relative age effects. Results did not support a linear relationship between these variables but provided some evidence of non-linear interactions. Collectively, these results indicate that the relationships between competition variables and the size of relative age effects are more complex than previously hypothesized. 

Keywords: Annual age-grouping, expertise, talent, handball, football


Jörg Schorer, PhD
Ammerländer Heerstr. 114-118
26129 Oldenburg, Germany
joerg.schorer@uni-oldenburg.de


 

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