NEWSBÜCHERJOURNALEONLINE-SHOP



 

Sie befinden sich hier: JOURNALE » Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling » Currently available » Inhalt lesen

« zurück

Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling

» Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling Online-Shop...


2011-2

Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, Volume 53, 2011 (2)

Applying the LLTM for the determination of children’s cognitive age-acceleration function
Klaus D. Kubinger, Christine Hohensinn, Stefana Holocher-Ertl & Nina Heuberger
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

The effects of the number of options on the psychometric characteristics of multiple choice items
Purya Baghaei & Nazila Amrahi
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article


Special Topic:
Caregivers’ evaluations of young children’s development and behavior
Guest-Editors: Ursula Kastner-Koller & Pia Deimann

Guest Editorial
Ursula Kastner-Koller & Pia Deimann
Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Maternal evaluations of young children’s developmental status: A comparison of clinic- and non-clinic-groups
Pia Deimann & Ursula Kastner-Koller
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Mothers’ estimates of their preschool children and parenting stress
Ulrike Willinger, Ines Schaunig, Simone Jantscher, Michaela Schmoeger, Benjamin Loader, Christina Kummer & Evelyn Peer
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

The development of kindergarten children as evaluated by their kindergarten teachers and mothers
Hannelore Koch, Ursula Kastner-Koller, Pia Deimann, Christine Kossmeier, Claudia Koitz & Marina Steiner
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

Detecting children with developmental-behavioral problems: The value of collaborating with parents
Frances Page Glascoe & Kevin P. Marks
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

 


Applying the LLTM for the determination of children’s cognitive age-acceleration function
Klaus D. Kubinger, Christine Hohensinn, Stefana Holocher-Ertl & Nina Heuberger

Abstract
The paper uses Item Response Theory (IRT) for modeling and hypothesis testing children’s cogni-tive age-acceleration function - within calibration and standardization of some intelligence test. For this, basically Fischer’s Linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973, 2005) is applied. How-ever, instead of originally decomposing the item difficulty parameters of the Rasch model into certain hypothesized elementary parameters, we now suggest to decompose the person parameter alike. That is, there is a decomposition into a testee’s basic ability parameter and an age-leveled effect due to the developmental stage of the age-group in question. For convenience, we only inter-change testees and items in order to facilitate parameter estimation and model test - of course, the Rasch model is totally symmetric as concerns testees and items. By doing so, all findings in the context of LLTM apply; in particular, pertinent program packages are at our disposal. In order to examine the suggested approach’s feasibility, an empirical example is given. An Analogy test with eight items administered to more than 300 testees aged between 6 and 16, was analyzed. As a matter of fact, the logistic acceleration function proved to fit the data well and best.

Key words: Rasch model, LLTM, program package eRm, cognitive age-acceleration, Adaptive Intelligence Diagnosticum


Klaus D. Kubinger, PhD Prof.
Head of the Division of Psychological
Assessment and Applied Psychometrics
Faculty of Psychology
University of Vienna
Liebiggasse 5
A-1010 Vienna, Austria
klaus.kubinger@univie.ac.at

top


The effects of the number of options on the psychometric characteristics of multiple choice items
Purya Baghaei & Nazila Amrahi

Abstract
This study aims to determine the optimal number of options for multiple-choice test items. A com-mon item equating design was employed to compare item statistics, distracter performance indices, person statistics, and test reliabilities across three similar vocabulary test forms, A, B, and C, which were different only in the number of options per item. Forms B and C were constructed by randomly deleting one distracter from each item in Form A and Form B respectively.  Form A, Form B, and Form C, each containing 30 multiple-choice vocabulary test items with five, four, and three options per item, were randomly given to 180 graduate and undergraduate English major university students. The three test forms were linked by means of ten common items using concurrent common item equating. The Rasch model was applied to compare item difficulties, fit statis-tics, average measures, distracter-measure correlations, person response behaviors, and reliabilities across multiple-choice vocabulary test items with five, four, and three options per item. Except for discrimination power of distracters which was revealed to be inversely affected by the number of options per item, no significant change was observed in item difficulties (p < 0.05), item fit statis-tics, person response behaviors, and reliabilities across the three test forms. Considering the amount of time and energy needed for developing multiple-choice tests with more distracters, three options per item were concluded to be optimal.

Key words: Optimal number of options, Multiple-choice tests, Rasch model


Purya Baghaei, PhD
English Department
Islamic Azad University
Mashhad Branch
91886 Mashhad, Iran
pbaghaei@mshdiau.ac.ir

top


Maternal evaluations of young children’s developmental status: A comparison of clinic- and non-clinic-groups
Pia Deimann & Ursula Kastner-Koller

Abstract
The question whether parents’ reports on their children’s development provide reliable information is a subject of controversial debate. While parental rating scales and parental interviews are widely used in clinical practice, empirical findings have shown that parents cannot assess their children well. Previous research has illustrated that most parents tend to overestimate the developmental status and cognitive performance of their children. If the child displays behavior problems, the accuracy of mothers’ appraisals decreases substantially. The aim of this study was (1) to examine whether mothers who are concerned about their children’s development still overestimate the developmental status and (2) whether maternal beliefs about developmental norms influence the accuracy of evaluation. The sample consisted of 14 mother-child-dyads who were clients of two outpatient clinics in Vienna and had concerns about the child’s development, 16 mother-child-dyads without concerns who sought advice because of their children’s potential high abilities, and 30 mother-child-dyads without concerns and no clinic referral. While the children were tested using the Wiener Entwicklungstest (Viennese Developmental Test, WET, Kastner-Koller & Deimann, 2002), a developmental test for children 3 to 6 years old, mothers were asked to estimate which items of the WET (1) their own child and (2) a normal peer would be able to solve. Mothers with concerns had limited knowledge of what a child of a certain age can achieve and they expected too much. Though they realized that their own developmentally delayed child did not fulfill these high expectations, they were not able to appraise his/her performance accurately. Mothers whose children were normally developed or even above average were able to evaluate their own children much more precisely. Moreover, these mothers estimated developmental norms more accurately. Both mothers of gifted children and of developmentally delayed children perceived a gap in their beliefs about their own children’s achievement compared to their beliefs about developmental norms. This discrepancy might lead them to seek advice at an outpatient clinic.

Key words:  maternal evaluation, developmental assessment, preschool age


Pia Deimann, PhD
Department of Developmental Psychology
and Psychological Assessment
Faculty of Psychology
University of Vienna
Liebiggasse 5
A-1010 Vienna, Austria
pia.deimann@univie.ac.at

top


Mothers’ estimates of their preschool children and parenting stress
Ulrike Willinger, Ines Schaunig, Simone Jantscher, Michaela Schmoeger, Benjamin Loader, Christina Kummer & Evelyn Peer

Abstract
The present study investigates whether the results of the study of Willinger and Eisenwort (2005) could also apply to a sample of preschool children not referred to a tertiary medical institution. Moreover, we were interested in the accuracy of maternal estimates of their children’s development regarding vocabulary for parenting stress, regarding behavioural problems, intellectual development, age and gender of the child. 108 children between the ages of three and six and their mothers were investigated by several diagnostic scales concerning child development with respect to language, motor and intellectual development as well as child behavioural problems and parenting stress concering child and parent characteristics. The mothers’ estimates regarding the children`s vocabulary were assessed by the same vocabulary test used for the children by presenting the test as questionnaire to the mothers. There was a significant trend towards an overestimation of a child’s developmental functioning regarding vocabulary. Group comparisons between groups of different levels of maternal overestimations (mild, moderate and severe overestimation) of their child’s language development with respect to parenting stress levels considering age, sex, intellectual develoment and child behaviour problems showed the lowest parenting stress level regarding child characteristics in the group of severe overestimation and the highest level of parenting stress regarding parent characteristics in the group of mild overestimation. Significant influences of child behaviour and intellectual level on parenting stress were found. 
The results showed that mothers should not be used as only source of information about their children’s developmental status, especially with respect to their active vocabulary. However, maternal overestimation seems to have a positive impact on parenting stress regarding child characteristics, which could possibly be explained as a defense mechanism, by cognitive dissonance or by mothers being the extended identity of their children.

Key words: mothers’ estimates, child behaviour problems, parenting stress, vocabulary


Ulrike Willinger, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Medical University of Vienna
Department of Neurology
Waehringer Guertel 18-20
A-1090 Vienna, Austria
ulrike.willinger@meduniwien.ac.at

top


The development of kindergarten children as evaluated by their kindergarten teachers and mothers
Hannelore Koch, Ursula Kastner-Koller, Pia Deimann, Christine Kossmeier, Claudia Koitz & Marina Steiner

Abstract
Kindergarten teachers represent one of the first non-family caregivers for a child; they play a part in educating the child and have significant insight into the developmental status of each individual child. Their assessment of children’s development can be an important part of information in the diagnostic process and is also essential for the early detection of developmental problems. Hence, the aim of this study was to measure the accuracy of kindergarten teachers’ assessments compared to mothers’ accuracy in the evaluation of their children’s development. Eighty children between the ages of 4 and 6 were tested with the Wiener Entwicklungstest (Viennese Developmental Test, WET, Kastner-Koller & Deimann, 2002). Meanwhile, these children’s kindergarten teachers were asked to estimate which items of each of the WET-subtests they personally thought children would be able to solve. The evaluations made by the mothers of 30 children in the sample were also included in the analysis in order to allow for a comparison between the mothers’ and teachers’ assessments. A multivariate multifactorial variance analysis yielded significant results. Kindergarten teachers under- and overestimated children in several developmental areas, though they were able to accurately estimate children’s overall developmental level. The comparison with mothers showed no difference regarding the assessment accuracy between the two groups of caregivers. A behavioral assessment based on a parents’ and teachers’ questionnaire (Verhaltensbeurteilungsbogen für Eltern und Erzieher, VBV 3-6; Döpfner, Berner, Fleischmann & Schmidt, 1993) also showed similar results. These results highlight the importance of various behavioral and developmental assessments by caregivers.

Key words: Kindergarten teachers, developmental diagnosis, preschool age


Hannelore Koch, PhD
Department of Developmental Psychology
and Psychological Assessment
Faculty of Psychology
University of Vienna
Liebiggasse 5
A-1010 Vienna, Austria
hannelore.koch@univie.ac.at

top


Detecting children with developmental-behavioral problems: The value of collaborating with parents
Frances Page Glascoe & Kevin P. Marks

Abstract
Half of all children with disabilities are not identified before school entrance. This precludes their participation in early intervention programs that have known value in reducing school drop out, criminality, increasing employment, and delaying child-rearing all of which accrue enormous costs to citizens. Although screening tests can greatly improve detection rates, these have not been popular in primary care due to test length, time constraints, and difficulty managing children’s behavior when hands-on measures are used. An alternative is to rely on parents’ concerns because these are not only accurate and efficient indicators of problems, but also because focusing on parents’ concerns makes visits relevant, engenders a much needed collaborative relationship in early detection, and increases the likelihood that parents will follow through with the recommendations of professionals. Nevertheless, careful attention must be paid to the wording of questions and use of parents’ concerns. Early detection is most effective when evidence-based decision-making guides professionals’ decisions. This review focuses on the use of parents’ concerns, meaning in their own words, to accurately detect and address developmental-behavioral (including social-emotional/mental health) problems. Suggestions for future research are described throughout.

Key words: developmental screening, developmental surveillance, parents’ concerns, child development, disabilities, behavioral screening


Frances Page Glascoe, Ph.D.
Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Child Development
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
frances.p.glascoe@vanderbilt.edu

top


» Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling Online-Shop...





alttext