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Politische Psychologie

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2007-1

Contents, Volume 49, 2007, Issue 1


WOLFGANG T. WIEDERMANN & RAINER W. ALEXANDROWICZ
A plea for more general tests than those for location only: Further considerations on Rasch & Guiard’s ‘The robustness of parametric statistical methods
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

ALEXANDER VON EYE & EUN YOUNG MUN
A note on the analysis of difference patterns - structural zeros by design
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

PATRICK MAIR & REINHOLD HATZINGER
CML based estimation of extended Rasch models with the eRm package in R
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

ROSA MARIA PUCA & IVA SLAVOVA
Mindsets and social comparison: Being aware of the competitor
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

JUTTA STAHL & THOMAS RAMMSAYER
The point of no return in motor response: Extraversion-related differences
Abstract | Startet den Datei-DownloadPDF of the full article

 


A plea for more general tests than those for location only: Further considerations on Rasch & Guiard’s ‘The robustness of parametric statistical methods’
WOLFGANG T. WIEDERMANN & RAINER W. ALEXANDROWICZ

Abstract
Starting with the discussion between Rasch & Guiard (2004) and von Eye (2004) concerning the use of parametric and nonparametric tests for the comparison of two samples a further approach toward this question is undertaken. Student’s t-test requires for its application interval scaled and normally distributed data along with homogeneous variances across groups. In case that at least one of these prerequisites is not fulfilled, common statistical textbooks for social sciences usually refer to the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Earlier simulation studies revealed the t-test to be rather robust concerning distributional assumptions. The current study extends these findings with respect to the simultaneous violation of distributional and homogeneity assumptions. A simulation study has shown that both tests lead to highly contradicting results, and a more general approach toward the question of whether parametric or nonparametric procedures should be used, is introduced. Results indicate that the U-Test seems to be in general a more proper instrument for psychological research.

Key words: Parametric tests, nonparametric tests, non-normality, heteroscedasticity, power


Wolfgang Wiedermann
University of Klagenfurt
Department of Psychology
Universitätsstrasse 65-67
9020 Klagenfurt
Austria
E-Mail:
wwiederm@edu.uni-klu.ac.at

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A note on the analysis of difference patterns - structural zeros by design
ALEXANDER VON EYE & EUN YOUNG MUN

Abstract
The method of finite differences is popular in the analysis of series of measures, because it allows one to analyze the shape of the curve that describes the series, and changes in the shape. In addition, it allows one to relate these changes to covariates. In the analysis of categorical variables, researchers can cross the sign patterns of first, second, and higher differences. In this note, it is shown that crossing sign patterns from different levels results in contingency tables with systematically large numbers of structural zeros. In addition, a simple algorithm is proposed that allows one to identify impossible combinations of sign patterns. Examples are presented using empirical and random number-generated data that are analyzed using log-linear models and Configural Frequency Analysis.

Key words: series of measures; method of differences; signs of differences; structural zeros; log-linear modeling; Configural Frequency Analysis


Alexander von Eye
Michigan State University
Department of Psychology
East Lansing
MI 48824-1116
USA
E-Mail:
voneye@msu.edu

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CML based estimation of extended Rasch models with the eRm package in R
PATRICK MAIR  & REINHOLD HATZINGER

Abstract
This paper presents an open source tool for computing extended Rasch models. It is realized in R (R Development Core Team, 2006) and available as package eRm. In addition to ordinary Rasch models extended models such as linear logistic test models, (linear) rating scale models and (linear) partial credit models can be estimated. A striking feature of this package is the implementation of conditional maximum likelihood estimation techniques which relate directly to Rasch's original concept of specific objectivity. The mathematical and epistemological benefits of this estimation method are discussed. Moreover, the capabilities of the eRm routine with respect to structural item response designs are demonstrated.

Key words: Extended Rasch models, CML estimation, specific objectivity, eRm-package.


Patrick Mair
Department of Statistics and Mathematics
Vienna University of Economics
Augasse 2-6
1090 Vienna
Austria
E-Mail:
patrick.mair@wu-wien.ac.at; reinhold.hatzinger@wu-wien.ac.at

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Mindsets and social comparison: Being aware of the competitor
ROSA MARIA PUCA & IVA SLAVOVA

Abstract
The mindset theory posits that people have less favorable beliefs while deliberating on actions or goals than while planning and implementing them. This is thought to be a self-regulatory mechanism that helps people choose reasonable goals, on one hand, and persist in goal pursuit, on the other. In the present experiment we tested the hypothesis that the beliefs of implemental participants differ from those of deliberative ones only in case that favorable views would not set them up for failure and disappointment. Participants in a deliberative or in an implemental mindset were asked to compare with two other persons with respect to a set of achievement-related activities. They were also told that they would have to compete with one of these persons in a motor-skills task. It could be shown that the participants generally tended to rate the comparison targets as being worse off. As in former experiments, this tendency was, however, reduced in deliberative participants. In addition, it was reduced in implemental participants when they expected to compete with the comparison target later on. Implemental participants did thus have more favorable views than deliberative ones only if they had not to compete with the comparison target. This seems to be a good strategy to enhance the feelings of one's own competence without running the risk of failure and embarrassment.

Key words: mindsets, action phases, social comparison, competition


Rosa Maria Puca
General and Applied Psychology
University of Tübingen
Friedrichstrasse 21
72072 Tübingen
Germany
E-Mail:
rosa-maria.puca@uni-tuebingen.de

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The point of no return in motor response: Extraversion-related differences
JUTTA STAHL & THOMAS RAMMSAYER

Abstract
The present study aimed at investigating extraversion-related individual differences in response organization. For this purpose, 50 female participants completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Dickman’s Impulsivity Inventory and performed a stop-signal reaction-time task. The most significant finding was that the so-called point of no return, defined as the point in time where a once initiated response can no longer be withheld, was reliably earlier reached with increasing individual extraversion scores. Extraverts' earlier point of no return appears to be a function of their tendency to continue and augment current response activity as implied by Brebner's theory of extraversion. Additional commonality analysis revealed that the point of no return is primarily modulated by the personality dimension of extraversion rather than the more specific trait of dysfunctional impulsivity.

Key words: Extraversion, response organization, stop-signal task, stop-signal delay


Jutta Stahl
Georg Elias Müller Institute for Psychology
University of Göttingen
Gosslerstr.14
37073 Göttingen
Germany
Phone: +49-551-393606
Fax: +49-551-393662
E-Mail:
jstahl@uni-goettingen.de

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