This book is based on the International Congress "Organ Transplantation: Ethical, Legal and Psychosocial Aspects. Towards a common European policy" (Rotterdam, The Netherlands, April 2007). The contributions deliver an overview of current worldwide achievements, analyses, controversies, and dilemmas. The topics:- Commercialization and trafficking; - Legal systems for organ donation and allocation;- Altruism, counseling and psychological aspects of living donation;- Minorities, religions, gender aspects;- Expanded post mortem donor criteria, including Non Heart Beating donation;- Role of patients, media and pharmaceutical industry;are intensely discussed among ethicists, clinicians, psychologists, lawyers and policy makers in the field of organ transplantation. The ELPAT platform is initiated with the aim to establish continuity in European communication on 'Ethical, Legal and Psychosocial Aspects of Organ Transplantation (ELPAT)', after several ad hoc conferences had been organised in the last two decades. ELPAT is thus an attempt to facilitate and structure the European research area in this field of science. It is now an official body within the European Society for Organ Transplantation.Contents:1. IntroductionW. Weimar, M. A. Bos, J. J. Busschbach: ELPAT, the European Platform on Ethical, Legal and Psychosocial Aspects on Organ TransplantationM. A. Bos: Organ Transplantation – The European PerspectiveF. L. Delmonico: Transplant Tourism and Organ Trafficking, an American PerspectiveL. D. de Castro: Organ Transplantation: A Developing Country Perspective2. Commercialization and TraffickingWorkshop I „Commercialization and Trafficking“: RecommendationsF. de Charro, M. Oppe, M. Bos, J. Busschbach, W. Weimar: A Regulated Organ Market?G. M. Danovitch: Who Cares? Impact of Commercialized Kidney Transplantation on the Doctor-Patient RealtionshipA. J. Matas: In Defense of a Regulated System of Compensation for Kidney DonationS. Olsena: A Latvian Case: The Removal of Tissue from 400 Deceased PersonsJ. Zargooshi: Commercial Renal Transplantation in Iran: The Recipients’ Perspective J. Zargooshi: Iran’s Commercial Renal Transplantation Program: Results and Complications3. Legal Systems for Organ Donation and AllocationWorkshop 2 „Legal Systems for ORgan Donation and Allocation“: RecommendationsA. J. Cronin: Equitable Access to OrgansW. Dondorp: Does Justice Allow Living Donor List Exchange? A Recent Report from the Health Council of the NetherlandsG. C. Oniscu, J. L. R. Forsythe: Allocation of Kidneys for Transplantation: Practical Aspects and Ethical DilemmasM. T. Hilhorst: „Living Apart Together“Do the Two Co-existing Systems – Cadaveric and Living Donation – Live in Harmony?H. Kreis: Whose Organs are they, Anyway?H. A. van Leiden, N. E. Jansen, B. J. J. M. Haase-Kromwijk, M. B. A. Heemskerk, C. R. Smand, E. de Buijzer, A. J. Hoitsma: Consent for Donation in The Netherlands: Relation between Registration and Relatives’ ConsentB. L. Neades: Healthcare Professionals’ Experiences in Applying Presumed Consent Legislation in Organ Donation in Three European Countries: A Phenomenological StudyG. Nowenstein: Is Presumed Consent Legislation just Black Letter Law? Methodological and Theoretical Lessons from the French CaseD. P. T. Price: Legal Systems for Organ Distribution in Europe: Justice in AllocationA. Ravelingien: Will Xenotransplantation Enhance Equity? Some Points to Consider Regarding Health Care CostsL. F. Ross: The Ethics of Kidney Paired Exchanges and Thematic Variations4. Altruism, Counselling and Psychological Aspects of Living DonationWorkshop 3 „Altruism, Counselling and Psychological Aspects of Living Donation“: RecommendationsT. Brkljacic, L. Kaliterna-Lipovcan, R. Franc: Blood and Bone Marrow Donation: Similarities and Differences in a Psychological ContextM. A. Dew, C. L. Jacobs, S. G. Jowsey, R. Hanto, C. Miller, F. L. Delmonico: Psychosocial Evaluation of Living Unrelated Kidney Donors in the United States: Summary of Guidelines from a Consensus ConferenceA. DiMartini, K. Porterfield, M. G. Fitzgerald, M. A. Dew, G. E. Switzer, A. Marcos, K. Tom: Psychological Profile of Living Liver Donors and Post-Donation OutcomesG. den Hartogh: When are Living Donations Voluntary enough?J. Hoyer: Is the Non-directed Donation the Ideal Living Organ Donation?M. de Klerk, W. C. Zuidema, L. W. Kranenburg, J. N. M. IJzermans, W. Weimar: Justification for Anonymity in a Kidney Exchange ProgramL. Kranenburg, W. Zuidema, W. Weimar, M. Hilhorst, J. IJzermans, J. Passchier, J. Busschbach: How to Inform Potential Donors about Living Kidney Donation?M. E. Olbrisch, S. M. Rausch, J. L. Levenson: Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplantation Ratings in 1500 Adult Liver Transplant CandidatesM. E. Olbrisch, S. M. Benedict, K. L. Cropsey, A. Ashworth, R. A. Fisher: Characteristics of Persons Seeking to Become Adult-to-Adult Living Liver Donors: A Single U.S. Center Experience with 150 Donor CandidatesM. Omnell Persson, L. Broström, N. H. Persson, G. Hermerén: Living Donors – How Far can we Proceed? A Brief Report on a Swedish Interview StudyJ. W. Saloma: My Mommy’s Kidneys are Sick and She is Dying! Why Internet Solicitation for Transplantation is UnethicalM. A. Sanner: Recruiting a Living Kidney donor: Experiences of Living Donors and Recipients of Living and Necro KidneysD. S. Silva, L. Wright: Of Altruists and Egoists: Living Anonymous DonorsG. E. Switzer, M. A. Dew, L. Myaskovsky, M. Crowley-Matoka, D. J. Harrington, A. F. DiMartini: Mothers’ Experiences of Umbilical Cord Blood DonationW. Zuidema, L. W. Kranenburg, R. A. M. Erdman, M. de Klerk, M. T. Hilhorst, J. N. M. IJzermans, W. Weimar: Living Kidney Donation by Goods Samaritans5. Minorities, Religion and Gender AspectsWorkshop 4 „Minorities, Religion and Gender Aspects“: RecommendationsG. M. Abouna: Islamic Views and Perspectives on Organ Donation and TransplantationM. Achille, I. Vaillancourt, G. Beaulieu-Pelletier: Living Kidney Donors: Are Women Motivated by Love and Men by Logic?P. Bruzzone: Religious Aspects of Organ TransplantationC. Cantrelle, E. Luciolli, B. Loty, P. Tuppin: Comparison of Access to Kidney Transplantation in France and Graft Survival between Non-French Patients and French Patients Living in Overseas Territories or on the MainlandS. van Embden, M. A. G. Sprangers, H. C. J. M. de Haes: Factors Affecting Willingness to Donate and Donor Registration: An Intercultural ComparisonM.-C. Fortin, M. Dion-Labrie, H. Doucet: Cross-Cultural Study of Transplant Physicians’ Views on Living Altruistic DonationE. Maeckelberghe, M. Verkerk: Religious Convictions and Consequences for Transplantation Waiting ListsL. Myaskovsky, G. E. Switzer, M. K. Mor, M. Ramkumar, R. Shapiro, M. A. Dew: Cultural Factors Related to Race Differences in Preference for Living Donor Kidney TransplantationM. Potts, D. W. Evans: Is Solid Organ Donation by Living Donors Ethical? The Case of Kidney DonationJ. Radcliffe Richards: Transplants and the Problems of Justice to GroupsG. Randhawa: Organ Donation and Transplantation – The Realities for Minority Ethnic Groups in the UKS. Sevimli: Transplantation and Medicine Ethics in TurkeyK. Ross, D. Pape, L. Wright: A Review of Ethical Issues in the Transplantation of HIV-infected Patients6. Post-Mortem DonationWorkshop 5 „Post-Mortem Donor“: RecommendationsM.-J. Clermont: The Ghost between us. Maintaining the Secret about Donor Identity; Moral Obligations entwined in this RuleA. J. Hoitsma: NHB Donation: How bad is it really?T. Pont, N. Masnou, R. M. Gràcia, M. Barreto, E. Duque, J. Portillo, N. Vila, P. Salamero, R. Deulofeu: Health Care Professionals – What do they know about Organ Donation?M. Siebelink, H. B. M. Van de Wiel, P. F. Roodbol, M. J. I. J. Albers: Research into the Donation Willingness in Pediatrics in The Netherlands – A Desirable Question or a Questionable Desire?M. H. Sieber-Rasch, J. A. M. Hagenaars, W. K. Redekop, H. A. van Leiden, B. J. J. M. Haase, J. N. M. IJzermans: Family Refusal Causes Discrepancy between Potential and Utilized Donors: A Prospective Study in 6 Hospitals in the Region of RotterdamD. Sperling: Me or Mine? On Property from Personhood, Symbolic Existence and Motivation to Donate OrgansM. Sque, T. Long, S. Payne: Why Bereaved Relatives Decline Organ and Tissue Donation7. Role of Patients, Media and the Pharmaceutical IndustryWorkshop 6 „Role of Patients, Media and Pharmaceutical Industry“: RecommendationsF. Fonjallaz, F. Fasseur, N. Ruffiner-Boner, T. Cuttelod, J. Szymanski, M. Santiago, N. Pilon, J.-P. Venetz, M. Pascual, C. Piot-Ziegler: Spontaneous Discourse on Employment Status and Professional Identity of Patients Waiting for Solid Organ TransplantationL. Gangeri, C. Brunelli, M. Bosisio, M. Tamburini, S. Ermenenco, V. Mazzaferro: Liver Transplant Experience: Development of a Health Related Quality of Life Specific Module (FACT-LT)V. A. Torres-Collazo, M. S. Guchereau: Improving Quality of Life by Treating Corticosteroid-Induced Psychological Disturbances in Transplant RecipientsM. Knibbe, E. Maeckelberghe, M. Verkerk: The Family as Patient and Caregiver: Adjustment of the Ethical Agenda about Parental Organ-DonationW. G. Land, T. Gutmann, A. S. Daar: Emerging Science, Emerging Ethical Issues: Who should Fund Innate Alloimmunity-Suppressing Drugs?N. Masnou, T. Pont, P. Salamero, E. Duque, M. Barreto, X. Millan, J. Portillo, J. Sendra, N. Vilà: Teens and Transplants – Teaching Project about Donation in BarcelonaJ. Partridge: Initiating a European Platform on Organ Transplantation Face Transplantation: Hearing the Patients’ VoiceJ. L. Szymanski, L. Pralong, N. Ruffiner-Boner, F. Fasseur, J. Maillefer, M. Santiago, C. Piot-Ziegler: Spontaneous Discourse on Live and Deceased Organ Donation in Renal Patients after Registration on Deceased Donation Waiting ListC. Piot-Ziegler, N. Ruffiner-Boner, F. Fasseur: The „Psycho-Nomad“: Translator, Mediator and a Lead for Patients Awaiting TransplantationD. Terán-Escandón, L. Á. Terán-Ortíz, R. Valdés-González-Salas, M. Gutiérrez-Cadena: Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Xenotransplantation in MexicoM. Tielen, S. Jedeloo, A. L. van Staa, W. Weimar:Immunosuppressive Drugs and Young Adults: A Difficult Combination
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